Some weeks back, the Feds announced they’d reached a settlement with Millennium Health on allegations that drug toxicology firm Millennium Health was involved in illegal practices (my characterization, not theirs).
More recently, Millennium has been working through a reorganization wherein the company’s debtors will assume control of Millennium. This reorg (currently held up by legal wrangling) was driven in large part by a $256 million settlement Millennium agreed to pay to resolve allegations of improprieties.
Note: Millennium is a consulting client, has been for almost four years, and will continue to be a client for the foreseeable future.
A bit more detail on my relationship with Millennium.
I’ve worked very closely with Millennium to design and promote a work comp-specific program. This program – a flat fee covering all drugs and metabolites tested by Millennium, coupled with a payer-specific outreach program and supported by clinical liaison personnel – has been widely accepted by and dramatically slashed drug testing costs for many payers. Everyone I’ve worked with at Millennium – their clinicians, researchers, operations, finance, executive, sales and account management staff – has been professional, highly ethical, and committed to their customers. Over the last four years, I never encountered anything that remotely indicated a possible ethical transgression.
The drug testing program now being considered by Medicare – a flat fee for an entire panel of tests – is what Millennium has been offering work comp payers for over three years.
After extensive research into the allegations and legal wrangling among and between the parties, there appear to be two primary issues described in the DoJ statement referenced above – giving testing cups to physicians, and promoting/allowing physicians to have “standing orders” for drug tests.
Millennium was accused of violating Stark laws by giving docs test cups that the docs would use to collect urine specimens and send those specimens to Millennium for quantitative testing if further testing was required. Millennium was also accused of inappropriately billing Medicare for drug tests by promoting custom “panels” wherein physicians would always request the same panel of drug tests for each payment.
First, the cups – and this is where things get a little confusing. According to Health Law Attorney Blog,
Millennium initiated the practice of entering into “cup agreements” with physicians under which Millennium agreed to provide POCT [point of care testing] cups to physicians free of charge if the physicians agreed: (i) not to bill any insurer for the urine testing service; and, if further testing was required, (ii) to return each test cup to Millennium for lab testing of the urine specimen. If the physicians failed to comply with these requirements, then Millennium would charge them for the price of the cups.
There’s an illuminating discussion of the cup issue here. It looks to me like the key issue is the government’s contention that by giving docs cups with immunoassay test strips attached, Millennium violated Stark laws. If the cups did NOT have those test strips, this would not have been an issue. I’m not clear as to how MH could have violated the Stark laws if the docs did not bill any payer for those cups and thus did not receive any remuneration, but it is clear that this was indeed a violation. As the above-reference Blog notes:
quoting the government here – “whenever a laboratory offers or gives to a source of referrals anything of value not paid for at fair market value, the inference may be made that the thing of value is offered to induce the referral of business.” With that statement, the government clarifies its position that the fact the physician does not bill for the item or service does not, by itself, negate this inference.
So, just giving the cups away, even while requiring the docs to not bill for them, was a violation.
Now, the panels. Drug test are supposed to be specific to a patient; the allegation against Millennium was that physicians and/or Millennium created custom panels of drugs and metabolites, specific to individual physician, panels that would be tested for every patient. Here’s how the Department of Justice described this:
Millennium caused physicians to order excessive numbers of urine drug tests, in part through the promotion of “custom profiles,” which, instead of being tailored to individual patients, were in effect standing orders that caused physicians to order large number of tests without an individualized assessment of each patient’s needs. [emphasis added]
The DoJ also notes the agreement settles allegations that Millennium inappropriately billed Medicare for genetic testing.
Clearly, these were very significant issues. They have resulted in major changes at Millennium including an overhaul of the Board and significant changes to management and ownership. There’s also a requirement that Millennium operate under a “corporate integrity agreement” overseen by HHS for five years.
The $256 million settlement addresses the Feds’ allegations, and there has been no determination of liability. That said, some may well infer that Millennium’s decision to settle the case and essentially turn the company over to its creditors indicates the company was not confident it would prevail if things progressed to trial.
It’s been an ugly, messy, and at times repugnant story. Here’s hoping the legal wrangling ends soon. In the meantime, I will continue to work with Millennium to help them deliver on their commitments to the work comp industry.
Note: Millennium Health has not provided any information to me regarding this matter other than what is publicly available on their website. Millennium has been aware of my intention to write a post on this topic once the legalities were resolved. MIllennium has not reviewed, seen, edited, or otherwise been involved in this post.